Goal Attainment Scaling References
Although many fine articles have been written on Goal Attainment Scaling, the most fruitful one is Kiresuk, T.J., Smith, A. & Cardillo, J. E. (1994). Goal Attainment Scaling: Applications Theory, and Measurement. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
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Bailey, D. B. Jr. & Simefonsson, R. J. (1988). Investigation of use of goal attainment scaling to evaluate individual progress of clients with severe and profound mental retardation. Mental Retardation, 26(5), 289.
Becker, H., Stuifbergen, A. & Timmerman, G. (2000). Goal attainment scaling to measure individual change in intervention studies. Nursing Research, 49 (3): 176-184.
de Beurs, E., Lange, A. & Blonk, R.W. B. (1993). Goal attainment scaling: An idiosyncratic method to assess treatment effectiveness in agoraphobia. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 15(4), 357
Bouwens, S. F. & Van Heugten, C. M. (2009). The practical use of goal attainment scaling for people with acquired brain injury who receive cognitive rehabilitation. Clinical Rehabilitation, 23(4), 310-320.
Bovend'Eerdt, T. J., Botell, R. E., & Wade, D. T. (2009). Writing SMART rehabilitation goals and achieving goal attainment scaling: A practical guide. Clinical Rehabilitation, 23(4), 352-361.
Cytrynbaum, S, Birdwell, G.Y., Birdwell, J., & Brandt, L. (1979). Goal attainment scaling: A critical review. Evaluation Quarterly, 3 5-40.
Donaldson, S. I., Gooler, L. E., & Scriven, M. (2002). Strategies for managing evaluation anxiety: Toward a psychology of program evaluation. American Journal of Evaluation, 23, 261.
Dreiling, D. S., & Bundy, A. C. (2003). A comparison of consultative model and direct-indirect intervention with preschoolers. The American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 57, 566-569.
Emmerson, G. J., & Neely, M. A. (1988). Two adaptable, valid, and reliable data-collection measures: Goal attainme scaling and the semantic differential. Counseling Psychologist, 16, 261-271.
Fleuridas, C., Rosenthal, D. M.& Leigh, G. K. (1990). Family goal recording: An adaptation of goal attainment scaling for enhancing family therapy assessment. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy,16(4), 389-
Gliner, J. A., Ross, T. & Spencer, K. C. (1999)The Use of Goal Attainment Scaling to Evaluate Student Involvement in Transition. Journal for Vocational Special Needs Education, 21 (3); 27-33.
Glover, S., Burns, J., & Stanley, B. (1994). Goal attainment scaling as a method of monitoring the progress of people with severe learning disabilities. British Journal of Learning Disabilities, 22, 148-150.
Gordon, J. E., Powell, C. & Rockwood, K. (1999). Goal attainment scaling as a measure of clinically important change in nursing-home patients. Age and Ageing, 28 (3): 275-83.
Joyce, B. M., Rockwood, K. J., & Mate-Kole, C. C. (1994). Use of goal attainment scaling in brain injury in rehabilitation hospital. American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 73(1), 10.
Hartman, D., Borrie, M. J., Davison, E., & Stolee, P. (1997). Use of goal attainment scaling in a dementia special care unit. American Journal of Alzheimerís Disease and Other Dementias, 12, 111-116.
Hogue, T. E. (1994). Goal attainment scaling: A measure of clinical impact and risk assessment. Issues in Criminological and Legal Psychology, 21, 96-102.
Holroyd, J., & Goldenberg, I. (1978). The use of goal
attainment scaling to evaluate a ward treatment program for
Hurn, J., Kneebone, I., & Cropley, M. (2006). Goal setting as an outcome measure: A systematic review. Clinical Rehabilitation, 20, 756-772.
Kiresuk, T. J., Smith A., Cardillo, J. E. (1994). Goal Attainment Scaling: Applications, Theory, and Measurement. Hillsdale, N.J. : L. Erlbaum Associates.
MacKay, G., Somerville, W. & Lundie, J. (1996). Reflections on goal attainment scaling (GAS): cautionary notes and proposals for development. Educational Research, 38 (2), 161
MacKay, G., McCool, S., & Cheseldine, S. (1993). Research section: Goal attainment scaling: A technique for evaluating conductive education. British Journal of Special Education, 20(4),143.
Maher, C. A., & Barbrack, C. R. (1984). Evaluating the individual counseling of conduct problem adolescents: The goal attainment scaling method. Journal of School Psychology, 22, 285-297.
Mailloux, Z., May-Benson, T. A., Summers, C. A., Miller, L. J., Brett-Green, B., Burke, J. P., et al. (2007). Goal attainment scaling as a measure of meaningful outcomes for children with sensory integration disorders. American Journal
of Occupational Therapy, 61, 254-259.
Malec, J. F (1999). Goal attainment scaling in rehabilitation. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 9, 253-275.
Marson, S. M., Wei, G., & Wasserman, D. (2009). A reliability analysis of Goal Attainment Scaling (GAS) weights. American Journal of Evaluation, 30 (2), 203-216.
Martin, S. B., & Thompson, C. L. (1995). Reality therapy and goal attainment scaling: A program for freshman student athletes. Journal of Reality Therapy, 14(2), 45
McDougall, J. & Wright, V. (2009). The ICF-CY and Goal Attainment Scaling: Benefits of their combined use for pediatric practice. Disability & Rehabilitation, 31(16), 1362-1372.
Milne, J. L., Robert, M., Tang, S., & Drummond, N. (2009). Goal achievement as a patient-generated outcome measure for stress urinary incontinence. Health Expectations, 12(3), 288-300.
MInts I & Kisaler D. (1981). Individualized measures of psychotherapy outcome, 491-534 (Kendall P & Butcher N, eds.) Handbook of Research Methods in Clinical Psychology. New York: Wiley.
Palisano, R. J. (1993). Validity of goal attainment scaling in infants with motor delays. Physical Therapy, 73 (10), 651
Rockwood, K., Stolle, P. & Fox, R. A. (1993).Use of goal attainment scaling in measuring clinically important change in the frail elderly. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 46(10), 1113-
Rockwood, K., Joyce, B. & Stolee, P. (1997).Use of goal attainment scaling in measuring clinically important change in cognitive rehabilitation patients. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 50 (5), 581-
Ottenbacher, K. J. & Cusick, A. (1990). Goal attainment scaling as a method of clinical service evaluation. The American Journal of Occupational, 44(6), 519
Palisani, R. J., Haley, S. M. & Brown, D. A. (1992). Goal attainment scaling as a measure of chang in infants with motor delays. Physical Therapy, 72(6), 432-
Roach, A. T., & Elliott, S. N. (2005). Goal attainment scaling: An efficient and effective approach to monitoring
student progress. Teaching Exceptional Children, 37, 8-17.
Rock, B. D. (1987). Goal and outcome in social work practice. Social Work, 32, 393-398.
Reddon, J.R., Dautovich, N.D. & North, C.A. (2001). Goal attainment scaling in relation to the global assessment of functioning scale in functional disorders and organic disorders in psychogeriatric inpatients. Clinical Gerontologist, 23 (3/4) 69-82.
Rockwood, K. et al. (2003). Responsiveness of goal attainment scaling in a randomized controlled trial of comprehensive geriatric assessment. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 56 (8) 736-743.
Sajatovic, M. & Ramirez, L. F. (2001). Rating Scales in Mental Health. Hudson, OH: Lexi-Comp Inc. (pages 178-186).
Schlosser, R. W. (2004). Goal attainment scaling as a clinical measurement technique in communication disorders: A critical review. Journal of Communication Disorders, 37 (3) 217-239.
Schmidt, G., Haugaard, J., & Timmons, G. H. (1986). Guidance program evaluation, goal attainment scaling, and
happy thoughts lift winter spirits. Elementary School Guidance & Counseling, 20, 224-230.
Shefler, G, Canetti, L. & Wiseman, H. (2001). Psychometric properties of goal attainment scaling in the assessment of Mannís time-limited psychotherapy. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 57, (7) 971-979.
Simeonsson, R. J., Huntington, G. S., & Short, R. J. (1982). Individual differences and goals: An approach to the
evaluation of child progress. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 1, 71-80.
Stolee, P. Stadnyk, K., Myers, A. M. & Rockwood, K. (1999). An individualized approach to outcome measurement in geriatric rehabilitation. Journals of Gerontology: Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 54A (12), 641-647.
Stolee, P., Rockwood, K., & Fox, R. A. (1992).The use of goal attainment scaling in a geriatric care setting. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 40(6), 574
Woodward, C. A., Santa-Barbara, J., Levin, S., & Epstein, N. B. (1978). The role of goal attainment scaling in
evaluating family therapy outcomes. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 48, 464-476.
Yip, A. M., Gorman, M. C. & Rockwood, K. (1998). a standardized menu for goal attainment scaling in the care of frail elders. The Gerontologist, 38 (6): 735-
Young, A. & Chesson, R. (1997). Goal attainment scaling as a method of measuring clinical outcome for children with learning disabilities. The British journal of occupational therapy, 60 (3),11-